Mixed martial arts (MMA) - a sport discipline in which martial arts and martial arts players fight with a large range of techniques allowed (in principle, all techniques allowed in other martial arts without weapons are allowed). Mixed martial arts express one of the modern trends in the development of martial arts - providing a sports spectacle in which the fight takes place with the smallest possible restrictions, but at the same time minimizing the risk of death and serious, permanent injuries.
The competition takes place both in the stand-up and on the ground floor. In typical MMA fights, throws, fists, kicks, levers, and choking are allowed. However, techniques that pose a significant risk to the players' health are prohibited. In the regulations of most organizations or professions, it is usually prohibited to: bite, hook, attack the genitals, eyes and larynx, hit the head, hit the spine, use the lever on small joints, i.e. fingers. The outcome of the fight is determined by the knockout (also technical), surrender and, if the fight is not over before time, the decision of the judges. Depending on the regulations of the given competition, sometimes a draw may be the acceptable decision.
Fights take place on a regular boxing ring or on rings of various shapes surrounded by a net that prevents players from falling out of the place of fight (commonly known as "cages"). The octagonal ring used by the UFC is referred to as the "octagon" (The Octagon - name is a registered trademark). Competitors must always have tooth protectors and gloves (usually thin, for gripping). Sometimes it is also allowed to use shin guards or knee pads.
There is no uniform and universally recognized division into weight categories (such as e.g. in boxing). In practice, the number of categories and their limits may vary significantly depending on the country or organization. There are, among others
super-heavy weight (+120 kg / 265 lb)
heavy weight (-120 kg / 265 Ib)
average weight (-84 kg / 185 Ib)
light weight (-70 kg / 155 Ib)
featherweight (-66 kg / 145 Ib)
rooster weight (-61 kg / 135 Ib)
During the period of shaping mixed martial arts, representatives of various styles competed with each other. Players of several of them proved to be more predestined than others to succeed in MMA. Boxers and kickboxers tended to dominate in strikes, wrestlers and judokas in overthrows, while representatives of Brazilian jiu-jitsu dominated the ground floor. As a result, most MMA fighters can be assigned to one of three categories: "ground floor", "wrestler" and "striker". Currently, thanks to cross-sectional training, most of the leading MMA fighters are effective in all three dimensions, achieving a high degree of versatility
- „Ground floor” (or grappler) specializes in grips. The tactic of this type of player is striving to fight on the ground floor, where he is looking forcing the opponent to surrender by means of a lever or choking. Although the ability to overthrow is closely related to the strategy of ground floor combat, a clean, strong overthrow is not as important to him as it is to a wrestler.
- „Wrestler” prefers close-up stand-up (so-called "clinch") and fight on the ground floor. His strength is usually overthrowing. A popular wrestler's strategy is known as "ground and pound". This refers to the method of overthrowing the opponent, achieving a dominant position on the ground floor and ending the fight with strikes.
- „Striker”(or striker) is a player who prefers stand-up fighting because of his punching skills (ie kicks and punches). The strategy of a striker's fight is "avoid short circuit and hit" (sprawl and brawl). This refers to focusing on neutralizing overthrow so that you can stay on your own feet and end the fight with blows.